Category Archive: Check Valves

Webinar Q and A: Carbon Capture and Role of Engineered Check Valves

As a follow-up from our webinar “Carbon Capture & the Role of Engineered Check Valves“, we are sharing, in this post, a few of the questions received from the audience.

During the webinar, we discussed what carbon dioxide is and how it impacts the environment, the critical methods of capturing carbon dioxide, how carbon dioxide is transported from producers to storage sites, technologies involved in carbon dioxide sequestration (storage), and how carbon dioxide is used for enhanced oil recovery.

We also explored the selection of appropriate check valves within the different carbon capture processes, including valve materials and pressure classes, highlighting their importance in maintaining optimal system performance and efficiency.

This webinar was presented by Stephen O’Neill, Director of Sales & Marketing at DFT® Inc.

If you missed this webinar, you can now view it on demand from the DFT® website, just click this link.

Below, our host answers a variety of questions that came in during the webinar:

Q: What is the difference between WLC® BF and WLC®?

A: The WLC® BF was engineered for the extreme conditions of boiler feed applications. The WLC® BF body comes standard as WC9 material with 410 trim in class 600 and 900/1500, 2 1/2″ to 10″. The WLC® materials available are Carbon Steel or Stainless Steel and sizes range from 1″ to 10″ in classes 150 to 2500.

Q: DFT® PDC® valve, is this designed to be used entirely without a pulsation dampener or does DFT® still recommend the use of a separate device?

A: The PDC® has a built in pulse dampening chamber so there is no need for a separate pulsation dampening devise.

Q: What are the primary advantages of Excalibur® over GLC® designs?

A: The primary differences between the Excalibur® and the GLC® are that the Excalibur has a 2-piece body and ASME B16.10 face-to-face dimensions, a direct replacement for a swing check valve. The GLC® has a short patterned body, therefore a lesser weight than the Excalibur®. The GLC® also meets API6D and is available in a larger range of sizes than the Excalibur®.

Q: Which plant absorbs co2

A: In general plants remove carbon dioxide from the air naturally, and trees are especially good at storing CO2 removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis.

Q: Do you have any mining applications with DFT® Valves?

A: Yes, DFT® has installations of check valves in many mining applications such as Autoclaving, mine dewatering, pump isolation, discharge, along with many others. We have the following resources on Mining that can be downloaded from our website:

An application guide with a section on Mining here:

Also, you can find success stories on dewatering and water hammer in mining here:

Q: Can the springs on the non-slam axial flow check valves be modified by factory to crack at a higher DP?

A : Yes, DFT® is able to custom size the internals of our valves to your application, which does include being able to modify cracking pressures as needed.

Q: What is the value of stiffness of springs

A: Spring rate (K) is the proportion of a spring’s force (pounds or newtons) to one unit of travel (inch or millimeter). It is a constant value which helps to calculate how much load you will need with a specific distance traveled and it will also help you calculate how much travel you will achieve with a certain load.

Q: Is there a standard guideline on where to install check valves in piping systems?

A: In keeping with generally accepted piping and valve installation guidelines, the DFT® Axial Flow, Nozzle Check Valve should be installed a minimum of 5 diameters downstream of a flow impediment, i.e. valve, reducer or bend etc, to ensure a good flow pattern at the entry to the check valve. The DFT® Axial Flow, Nozzle Check Valve should also be installed at least 5 diameters upstream of a bend or reducer to allow flow to even-out and avoid choked flow conditions which can prevent the full opening of the check valve.

DFT® has a technical sheet with diagrams that is available on our website in the resources section that can be downloaded. Go to to download

Q: What advantages do axial flow non-slam check valves have versus swing check in reducing the effects of water hammer?

A: Swing checks rely on gravity or reverse flow to close and these conditions contribute to water hammer. Axial flow check valves are designed to close upon decreasing differential pressure, not reliant on reverse flow. This reduces or eliminates the likelihood of it slamming shut.

Axial flow, spring assisted, non-slam check valves can be installed horizontally or vertically flow up or flow down, whereas swing checks cannot be installed vertical flow down.

Q: What does Sweetened natural gas mean?

A: Gas Sweetening is a process that removes Hydrogen Sulfides (H2S) and is sometimes referred to as amine treating.

Resulting in Sweet Gas, which is non-corrosive, less acidic, and requires little refining.

Whereas Sour Gas must be sweetened to remove H2S and CO2, which have a corrosive effect on gas pipelines and is toxic to humans.

Q: Why is valve sizing important?

A: The most appropriate-sized valve must be chosen in order to render the best service. An undersized valve will cause higher pressure losses and create excessive noise and vibration, and an oversized valve can lead to a premature wear and failure of the valve’s internal components. Choosing the best valve will ensure proper flow, optimize overall efficiency, and enhance the integrity and longevity of any fluid handling system.

DFT® will also work with customers to “engineer” the right valve for their application. DFT® will help you by providing the right valve solution.

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Hospital Building Systems and the Role of the Check Valves

Hospitals and healthcare environments serve thousands of employees, patients, and visitors 24/7. It is essential that these large campus systems are properly constructed and maintained to produce a safe, effective, and efficient environment for the benefit of all who use these facilities.

These facility systems are complex and include utility services that provide power, heat, water, steam, air, and gas. It is important that appropriate design considerations are taken to ensure system maintainability, economic and energy efficiency, and the ability to adapt to future changes or expansions. Check valves are common throughout all these systems and play an important role in providing protection to pumps and compressors, as well as preventing reverse flow and water hammer.

Utility Services Where Check Valves Are Installed

Power House Systems in Hospitals: Medical campuses use a large amount of energy for equipment such as high-power lighting in operating rooms, air exchange, filtration, and other uses. They rely on continuous supply and backup power systems. There are different types of systems in use, from gas and steam turbines to thermal heat and solar power. 

A steam turbine power generation plant is a common type of power plant today. This type of plant converts heat into electricity typically by using a boiler and a turbine to operate an electric generator.

Chiller Systems: These systems are used to create a comfortable interior environment. They use pumps, fans, and other components to provide chilled air via air-cooled or water-cooled condenser systems. 

Air & Gas (Nitrous Oxide) Pumping Systems: Industrial check valves are also used in the transport of air and gas throughout hospital systems. They need to be reliable to prevent leakage and minimize the risk of fire and explosion. 

Industrial Boiler Systems in Hospitals: Most hospitals use steam boilers to economically heat buildings quickly. These boilers are relied upon for consistent and safe operation, responsible for heating, hot water, humidification, and sterilization, among other vital hospital tasks. They need to keep up with demand, so downtime is not an option.

How a steam boiler works to heat a facility:

  1. Feed water intake—transferred from the main supply to the boiler system
  2. Dirt and debris are removed
  3. A deaerator removes the air from the water
  4. The water goes into the boiler tank for heating
  5. Steam is produced by boiling the water
  6. The steam is sent through pipes and used for heating areas
  7. Through condensation, the steam turns back into water for reuse 

Steam Boiler – Deaerator

DFT® has an extensive installed base in hospitals, medical centers, and universities throughout the U.S. Our check valves are used in many different applications throughout these campuses. 

What differentiates DFT® check valves from other check valves is the distinctive spring-assist technology that prevents reverse flow, reduces the potential for water hammer and vibration, and protects pumps and other valued equipment. Additionally, the low maintenance and long service life provide long-term savings and superior performance.

Check valves play an important role in preventing water hammer and its effects within hospital systems. They also protect pumps within the system from reverse flow. DFT® provides complimentary check valve sizing analysis to ensure stable, maintenance-free operation. This quick and easy DFT® sizing process will ensure significant improvement in check valve performance and reliability. In addition, our sizing process has proven to provide our customers with the lowest cost of check valve ownership far beyond any other commodity-type checks used in most plants today.  

DFT® Check Valves Used in Boiler Systems and Building Maintenance

Boiler feedwater systems are challenging due to the potential for high pressure and temperature. DFT® has designed the WLC® Boiler Feed Wafer Style Axial Flow Non-Slam Check Valve for just this application.  The WLC® Boiler Feed Check Valves can handle pressures up to 3,705 PSI and Temperatures up to 800 °F.

The WLC® BF wafer check valves provide excellent performance and protection in boiler feedwater systems. 


  • A one-piece body that has a ribbed construction
  • A welded disc and stem
  • 410 stainless steel trim 
  • Spring-assisted axial flow design
  • Center guided non-slam construction
  • The WLC® BF is available in:
    • Sizes 2½ through 10 inches
    • Pressure classes 600/900/1500

DFT® can also offer the Excalibur® or GLC® Check Valve designs if flanged construction is required.

Condensate return systems are integral to boilers. These systems tend to operate at lower pressures and temperatures than feedwater applications. They also tend to have smaller diameter piping. The SCV® can handle pressures up to 2,570 PSI and temperatures up to 510 °F depending on the materials of construction and Cold Working Pressure ratings.

The SCV® provides excellent performance and protection in boiler condensate systems.

The SCV® threaded valves feature:

  • Stainless steel construction
  • NPT or socket weld ends
  • Body guided disc 
  • Spring-assisted axial flow design
  • The SCV® is available in:
    • Sizes ½ through 3 inches
    • 750 and 3600 Cold Working Pressure

DFT® has many types of check valves designed for use in steam and steam condensate systems, depending on the size, flow, and temperature of the application. 

For more information on DFT® check valves and sizing for your application, contact us.

Threaded Check Valves Guide

Threaded check valves are a type of valve that features either internal or external threaded end connections. The term “threaded” refers to the valve end connection, which is the component of the valve that connects with the piping system. This type of valve is typically easy to install and performs very well in applications with various pressures and temperatures. Most often, threaded valves are four  inches or under. These components are available with either male or female connections and can be tapered or straight. Tapered threaded valves (NPT ends) will provide a direct seal, while straight threaded valves (NPS ends) will require auxiliary components to provide a seal.

Uses for Threaded Valves

Threaded valves are widely found in applications with stable pressures and temperatures. They can be used in liquid, gas, or steam applications. Industries that commonly utilize threaded valves include:

  • Boiler
  • Food and beverage
  • Power generation
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Municipal
  • Pulp and paper
  • Chemical processing
  • Water treatment
  • Mining
  • Test laboratories
  • Textiles
  • Primary metals
  • Gas transmission
  • Petroleum production and refining
  • Building maintenance


Threaded valves can be found throughout all industries but are common within the petrochemical  industry and can often be found in refineries. They are also a popular choice for boiler and steam applications. In these cases, the environment will typically feature very high temperatures coupled with low pressures.

It is also possible to use threaded valves in applications related to gas or oil production. Unlike steam and petrochemical applications, gas and oil production will feature extremely high pressures, prolonged opening and closing times, and harsh environmental conditions.

Factors to Consider Choosing the Right Threaded Valve

To protect the long-term performance of your piping system, it is important to choose the appropriate threaded valve. There are several factors to consider when making this decision. A significant consideration is the amount of pressure that the valve must withstand. For applications with high pressure, an externally threaded valve is the optimal choice, as it will have a thicker wall than an internally threaded valve.

It is also important to determine whether the valve must provide a direct seal. Applications that require a fluid-tight seal will generally necessitate the use of a tapered valve, as this will provide a seal without the need for any additional components. National Pipe Thread Tapered (NPT) valves are the U.S. standard for applications requiring tapered valves.

Factors to consider when choosing a threaded valve include:

  • Temperature
  • Pressure
  • Tight seal (metal or soft seat)
  • Size and weight
  • Adherence to industry and plant standards
  • Valve permanence
  • Ease of installation
  • Ease of removal
  • Budget
  • Inventory simplification

Threaded Check Valves from DFT Valves

Since 1943, we at DFT Inc. have been engineering and manufacturing world-class, in-line check valves for use in a wide array of industries, from petroleum refining to food and beverage.

Our check valves can be installed vertically or horizontally and play an integral role in steam condensate management systems. These systems help maintain high-quality steam, thus preventing the development of many issues within the pipe and valve. In particular, our line of SCV threaded check valves is ideally suited for use in steam condensate applications. These valves feature a range of qualities, including corrosion resistance and longevity, that ensure their high performance in applications of this type.

For over seven decades, our priority has been preventing threaded check valve failures. We are dedicated to providing our customers with threaded valves that are both sized appropriately and suited to the unique needs of each application. To learn more about our offerings, browse our Threaded Valves Catalogue or contact us today.

DFT Threaded Check Valves are available in the following types and sizes:

SCV Check Valves – 1/2” to 2” – 750 & 3600 CWP

SCV-R – ½” to 2” –

Basic Check – ¼” to 2 ½”

Restrictor Check – ¼” to 2 ½”

Vacuum breakers – 1”” to 4”

DFT®’s ALC® and WLC® Wafer Check Valves

DFT® Wafer Check Valve Solutions for: WATER HAMMER

Water hammer is a problem that can occur in piping systems that use pumps or valves to control liquid or steam flows. It is commonly caused by a sudden closure of a valve or shutdown of a pump and presents as a loud banging or knocking sound in the pipes. If the problem is severe enough, water hammer can cause damage to pumps, pipe ruptures, or broken gaskets or welds, creating a safety hazard for anyone in the vicinity.

To eliminate water hammer from your system, we first must understand the various harmful effects it can have and what solutions are available to resolve them.

The Harmful Effects of Water Hammer

Water hammer occurs when a fluid in motion suddenly stops or changes direction. The fluid sends a shockwave—called hydraulic shock—through the system, causing vibration or banging in the pipes immediately following shutoff.

Water hammer is an issue that can cause damage to your flow system and overall operation. The most common consequences are:

  • Pump and flow system damage: Water hammer can cause pumps, valves, and other instruments to be damaged. Seals and gasketed joints can fail, and the integrity of welded joints and pipe walls can be compromised.
  • Ruptured pipes: Local pipeline failure as a result of extreme pressure spikes can lead to complete rupture, which can be costly and time-consuming to repair.
  • Accidents: Ruptured pipes can endanger maintenance staff and other employees. In some facilities, such accidents can put them at risk of electrocution, slips, and falls.
  • Leaks: When pressure waves hit the pipes, they can damage connections, joints, and fittings, leading to leaks. These weak spots may go unnoticed or grow slowly over time, exposing surrounding equipment to potential damage.
  • External property damage: The water from a ruptured pipe can cause external damage or corrosion to infrastructure and electrical devices.
  • Unscheduled downtime: If a pipe ruptures or causes property damage, repairs can be lengthy. This can lead to lost production and other financial losses related to the repair.

Our Solution

DFT® is a world-class manufacturer of check valves for a wide range of industries and applications. Our ALC® and WLC® are wafer-style check valves that help to prevent water hammer and reverse flow. They can be a direct replacement for failing double-door or dual-plate check valves. DFT® non-slam, spring-assisted, and center-guided check valves are designed to maximize the service life of your flow system.

The ALC® Wafer Check Valve is a compact, lightweight spring assisted valve with API 594 face-to-face dimensions that fit between mating flanges. The body is constructed from corrosion-resistant stainless steel and carbon steel, and it can be used in vertical or horizontal installations. Compatible with steam, gas, or liquid process flows, the ALC® check valve features spring-assisted silent closing.

The WLC® Wafer Check Valve is a lightweight, spring-assisted valve suitable for a wide range of pressures, temperatures, and fluids. With a carbon steel and stainless steel body, the WLC® features a protected Inconel spring and dual-guided stem. Optional body materials such as Alloy 20, Hastelloy®, Duplex SS, Titanium, and Inconel® 625 are available.

Benefits of Our ALC® and WLC® Wafer Check Valves

To eliminate water hammer and reverse flow from your industrial piping system, look no further than DFT®’s ALC® and WLC® Wafer Check Valves. These non-slam check valves do not rely on gravity or reverse flow for their closure. Instead, as the forward velocity of the fluid slows, the spring assist on the valve starts to close ahead of flow reversal. The DFT® spring-assisted operation ensures that the valve does not slam shut, thus preventing water hammer and its associated noise and damage. Here is an overview of the features and benefits of each product line.

ALC & WLC Check Valves

ALC® Wafer Check Valves

  • Available in sizes 2” to 24”, Class 150 & 300
  • Meets API 594 face-to-face dimensions
  • Center-guided
  • Suitable for gas, liquid, or steam applications
  • Can be installed vertically or horizontally
  • Can be custom-sized to your application
  • Low maintenance, long service life
  • Tapped holes in the body to aid installation (only 10” or larger)
  • Download the ALC Cut sheet

WLC® Wafer Check Valves

  • Available in sizes 1” to 10”
  • Class 600 & 900/1500 RF meets API 594 face-to-face
  • Class 150 & 300 RF meets MSS 126 face-to-face dimensions
  • Center & dual-guided stem
  • Works with a wide range of temperature/pressure combinations and fluids
  • Can be installed vertically or horizontally
  • Can be custom-sized for your application
  • Available for Severe Service (WLC® SS) and Boiler Feed (WLC® BF) severe duty applications
  • Low maintenance, long service life
  • Download the WLC Cut sheet

Prevent Water Hammer With DFT® Check Valves

For more than 75 years, DFT® has been solving our customers’ check valve issues, preventing check valve failures, and eliminating water hammer problems. We offer cost-effective rapid prototyping, engineering assistance, and fast production turnarounds. Instead of merely meeting line size, DFT® specializes in producing in-line check valves that meet our customers’ specific requirements. As an engineered valve manufacturer, we have the capability to size to the application and solve unique problems by making adjustments to our valves to suit your application.

DFT® can evaluate your valve sizing requirements and answer any questions you may have about our WLC® and ALC® valve product lines. Browse the ALC® and WLC® product pages, or contact us today.

Webinar Q&A: Hydrogen Production and the Role of Engineered Check Valves

As a follow-up to our November 2022 webinar, Hydrogen Production and the Role of Engineered Check Valves, we’re sharing the questions we received from the audience. The answers are provided by host Stephen O’Neill, Director of Sales and Marketing of DFT ® Inc. O’Neill, MBA, is a degreed Mechanical Engineer with 30 years of experience in the valve industry including check valves, control valves, pressure relief valves and pulse jet valves.

In our webinar, Stephen broke down what to know about hydrogen production, including what hydrogen is, how it’s produced, the different methods of storage and more. He also provided in-depth information on the right check valves to use for various hydrogen applications.

Hydrogen and the Role of Engineered Check Valves Webinar

If you missed the webinar, you can now view it on demand. Simply click this link.

Below, our knowledgeable host answers questions regarding engineered check valves to help you find the right type and fit for your hydrogen application.

Q: Are there any pipelines in the USA (or in the world) with hydrogen injection?  If so, what is the percentage of hydrogen?  Is any pipeline operator nearing the 15% hydrogen composition?

A: Hydrogen can be injected in Natural Gas pipelines, but only up to 15% of the mix.  This can be done, but it is still in the pilot stages.

Excalibur® Silent Check Valve

Q: Can the Excalibur be used in temp around 113F to -50F?

A: Yes, the Excalibur can be used in temperatures ranging from 133F to -50F, but in order to function at -50F the valve must be made of stainless steel.

Q: Is there something specific of API6D that only applies to check valves & not generally also to ball valves?

A: This specification defines the requirements for the design, manufacturing, assembly, testing, and documentation of ball, check, gate, and plug valves for application in pipeline and piping systems for the petroleum and natural gas industries.

This specification is not applicable to subsea pipeline valves, as they are covered by a separate specification, API 6DSS.

This specification is applicable to valves for the following pressure ratings only: Class 150, Class 300, Class 400, Class 600, Class 900, Class 1500, and Class 2500.

PDC® Silent Check Valve

Q: How many cycles per minute can the PDC valve handle?

A: The PDC does not cycle on and close when it is installed downstream from a reciprocating compressor.  The PDC has a built-in pulse dampening chamber that is designed to remain in the open position even as the compressor cycles.  The valve does not begin to close until the upstream pressure decreases and begins to approach the cracking pressure.

Q: Would the PDC valve be used in addition or in lieu of the check valves used in a diaphragm compressor?

A: A diaphragm compressor is a variant of the classic reciprocating compressor with backup and piston rings and rod seal. The compression of gas occurs by means of a flexible membrane, instead of an intake element. The back and forth moving membrane is driven by a rod and a crankshaft mechanism.  These compressors have built in check valves as part of their assemblies.  The PDC would not typically be used in this application.

Q: What is the “special cleaning” required with cryogenic check valves?

A: Special cleaning is required to clean cryogenic valves and piping. This cleaning process is designed to remove oils, grease, and fibers, which may interfere with your system’s functionality or present a flammability hazard depending on the service. After washing the valve’s component parts in a solvent cleaner, workers must inspect them for any residues the cleaning procedures may have missed. In most cases, the valves and pipes should not contain any assembly grease or oils, although there are some approved lubricants for oxygen service components that will not harm the system with their presence. Some customer specs may not allow for the presence of any lint or fibers within the valve. Even if some fiber is allowed, no system should contain fibers greater than 1/8” (3 mm) in length. In oxygen systems, the presence of lint can be quite problematic due to the risk of flammability. It is critical to thoroughly inspect all the components that go into the system to make sure they are free of any and all contaminants. Black light testing allows inspectors to easily identify lint, fibers, or other residue that needs to be removed.

Q: Do you do check valves where the downstream pressure could be intermittently as low as or close to vacuum?  Is there some special feature you use for this type of application?

A: DFT makes special check valves for use in vacuum applications.  These valves are called Vacuum Breaker Check Valves.  These valves have cracking pressures that range from .6 to .15 PSI.

Q: What is the suggested type of check valve for low pressures? (20-40 bar, non-cryogenic)

A: DFT does not consider 20 to 40 bar as low pressure applications. DFT has a side variety of check valves that can handle these pressures.  The choice of valve would depend on size, end connection and material requirements.

Q: If liquid hydrogen is needed to be compressed to at least 5,000 PSI, how is the PDC suitable at Class 1,500?

A: 5,000 PSIG exceeds the pressure of a 1500 Class valve. A 2500 Class (non-catalogue) valve would have to be used at these pressures.

Q: Is there a plan to manufacture valves less than 2″ size especially for high pressure hydrogen (>300 barg).

A: We do not offer a PDC in sizes lower than 2 inch, due to restrictions associated with internal components

Q: For Saltwater pump discharge applications, is 316SS internal material available?

A: Yes, 316 internals are available.  However, DFT also offers valves made of Nickel Aluminum Bronze material for saltwater applications. NAB may be a better choice.

Q: Do your check valves open only due to flow increase or delta P, or both?

A: DFT check valves are designed to open upon increased upstream pressure and/or decreased downstream pressure.  Either condition can result in the .5 cracking pressure.  Cracking pressure refers to the inlet pressure level at which the first sign of flow is present. It can also be described as a measure of the pressure differential between the inlet and outlet ports of the valve when flow is initially detected.

Q: Is H2 already used for running vehicles?

A: Yes, but the number is very limited.  Hydrogen fueled vehicles require Hydrogen fueling stations.  Most of the Hydrogen fueling stations in the US are in California.  However, more are planned in other states including Texas. However, there are more than 20,000 forklift trucks that operate on hydrogen fuel cells in the US.

Q: For the reciprocating application, I think you mentioned a spring designed for 1,000,000 cycles.  Does that spring cycle with every compressor piston stroke?  If so, 1,000,000 cycles is not very long.

A: The PDC does not cycle on and close when it is installed downstream from a reciprocating compressor.  The PDC has a built-in pulse dampening chamber that is designed to remain in the open position even as the compressor cycles.  The valve does not begin to close until the upstream pressure decreases and begins to approach the cracking pressure.

Q: How do you minimize the back pressure that can be created by the check-valve on upstream equipment?

A: The way to minimize the potential for upstream backpressure is to install springs with low cracking pressure.  A spring with a .5 PSIG cracking pressure would result in the release of any upstream backpressure that exceeded the .5 PSIG cracking pressure.

Q: Understanding that the PDC check valve is made for gas, what are the impact of particulates within the gas on the function of the valve (sensitivity to solids carried through)?

A: Particulate interfering with the operation of a PDC pulse dampening check valve is not something that we typically experience.  However, if particulate is present in the flow stream and it is present is sufficient volume, it would have the potential to affect the operation of the pulse dampening chamber within the PDC.  Scrubbers or separators would typically be installed in gas flow streams to remove such partials before they reach compressors or check valves.

Q: Is cracking a pressure and pressure loss related?

A: Cracking pressure refers to the inlet pressure level at which the first sign of flow is present. It can also be described as a measure of the pressure differential between the inlet and outlet ports of the valve when flow is initially detected.  So, the answer is yes.  If there is a loss of pressure on the downstream side of the check valve that results in a differential pressure that exceeds the cracking pressure, the valve will open and begin to flow.

For more than 75 years, DFT® Inc. has helped customers find and install the right check valves for their unique applications. To learn more about our valves, and how we can assist you, contact us directly.